Theory of Nativism
Nativism comes from the word Nativus which means birth. This theory emerged from the philosophy of nativisma (born) as a form of idealism philosophy and produced a view that the development of the child is determined by heredity, innate nature, and natural factors of nature. The pioneer of the flow of Nativism is Arthur Schopenhauer a German philosopher living in 1788-1880. This flow argues that the development of the individual is determined by the innate since he was born. Factors of the environment itself is considered less influential on the development and education of children. In essence the flow of Nativism comes from Leibnitzian Tradition, a tradition that emphasizes the ability in a child. The results of mining are determined by the innate and genetic traits of both parents.
Thus, according to this flow, the success of learning is determined by the individual itself. Nativism argues, if a child has a talent of jahar from birth, he becomes evil, and vice versa if the child has good talent, then he will be good. Children's education that is not in accordance with the talent that is brought will not be useful for the development of the child itself.
That view does not deviate from reality. For example, a child resembles his or her parents physically and will inherit the nature and talent of the parent. In principle, the view of Nativism is the recognition of the original power that has been formed since the human being was born into the world, namely the psychological and physiological forces that are hereditary, and other basic skills whose capacities are different in each human being. Some grow and grow to the point of maximum ability, and some are only up to a certain point. For example, a child from a parent who is a music artist will develop into a musical artist who may exceed his or her parenting skills, possibly as much as half the ability of his or her parents.
Arthur Schaupenhaur firmly declares the evil will be evil and the good will be good. This view as opposed to the optimism of pessimistic education provides the basis that success is determined by educational factors, determined by the child himself. The surrounding environment does not exist, meaning that the environment will not be empowered in influencing children's development. Although in reality everyday physically found children like their parents, talent inherit the talents of both parents, but the genetic talent is not the only factor that determines the development of children, but there are still other factors that influence the development and formation of children into adulthood , Know the competence in self and identity itself (identity).
Factors of human development in the theory of Nativism
1. Genetic factors. It is the gene factor of both parents that encourages a talent that arises from the human self. An example is If both parents of the child is a singer then his son has a talent inhabitant as a singer a large percentage.
2. Child Ability Factor. Is a factor that makes a child knows the potential contained in him. This factor is more real because the child can develop the potential that is in him. An example is the extracurricular activities in schools that encourage each child to develop the potential that exists within him according to his or her talents and interests.
3. Child growth factors. Is a factor that encourages the child to know his talents and interests in every growth and development naturally so that if the child's growth is normal then he's being energetic, active, and responsive to the ability possessed. Conversely, if the child's growth is not normal then the child can notmngenali talent and ability possessed.
Objectives of Nativism Theory
In this theory according to G. Leibnitz: Monad "In the individual human being there is a personal core". While in theory Theory of Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) stated that human development is innate / talent. So with this theory every human is expected:
1. Able to bring the talent possessed. With this theory is expected humans can optimize the talent possessed because it already knows the talents that can be developed. Given this, it makes it easy for people to develop something that can have a major impact on their progress.
2. Encourage people to manifest themselves with competence. So with this theory is expected every human being should be more creative and innovative in the effort of developing talent and interest to become competent human being so that can compete with others in facing the challenge of today which more and more needed by competent human being more superior than others.
3. Encourage people in determining choices. The existence of this theory man can be wiser to determine his choice, and if he has made the choice man will commit and stick to his choice and believe that something he chooses is best for him.
4. Encourage people to develop the potential of within a person. This theory is proposed to make human beings play an active role in the development of self-potential that dimilii so that humans have a characteristic or special characteristics as human identity.
Read Also :
5.Encourage people to recognize the talent of interest they have. With this theory, then people will be easy to recognize the talent possessed, premature premature means that humans recognize the talent possessed then with it humans can better maximize the baakat so that it can be more optimal.
Applications in the present
Naturally innate factors can not be altered by surrounding natural influences and education (Arthur Schaupenhauer (1788-1860)). To support that theory in the era of now many opened pelatiahn and courses for the development of talent so that the talents are brought from birth was trained and developed so that every human individual is able to cultivate self potential. So that the potential that exists in man is not in vain because it is not developed, trained and raised.
But the training is dominated by people who do know the talent they have, so the introduction of talent and interest at an early age little coercion from parents and it causes the talents and abilities of children tend to be closed and even disappeared because of the authoritarian attitude of parents who do not Consider the child's talents, abilities and interests. T
his training institute is made to be a container to accommodate a talent so that the ability possessed by the child can be channeled and developed well so that the results achieved can be maximized.
Unwittingly in educational institutions were also opened activities that can develop and channel the talents of children outside academic activities. So in addition to children get knowledge in the classroom, but also can develop the talent he has.